Articles & Research

Hydration “Salt Wasters” And Dehydration

Aldosterone is the adrenal cortex hormone the human body uses to regulate sodium (salt) and potassium (a.k.a. electrolytes) and, therefore, blood pressure.

Due to no or very little aldosterone production, people with primary adrenal insufficiency (primary Addison’s disease) and the majority (75%) of those diagnosed with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are categorized as “salt-wasters”, and must replace this aldosterone hormone orally (with fludrocortisone acetate, a.k.a. Florinef®).

Even with oral replacement, maintaining the optimum levels of this hormone can be a challenge. When these “salt wasters” exert themselves heavily, or spend enough time in hot temperatures, there is a good possibility of their losing too much salt in sweat and urine, putting them at higher then normal risk for dehydration. Therefore, “salt wasters” should be sure to drink enough non-sugar-laden liquids, and supplement with enough salt to alleviate this dangerous situation.

Some good liquid options to consider: water (always the best liquid), seltzer or soda water, tea of any type, fruit juice, milk, broth, etc. (Cold salted liquids are not recommended…too much salt at one time can cause diarrhea.)

Salty food ideas: dill pickles, pretzels, nuts, olives, broth, potato chips, etc.

August 2005

MAYO Clinic DHEA Study

Dehydroepiandrosterone Replacement Therapy in Hypoadrenal Women:
Protein Anabolism and Skeletal Muscle Function – click to read PDF article

November 2008   –   Updated 11/18/2012


North American Survey (1997) The first survey of individuals with Addison’s disease residing in North America  (1997)
DHEA Studies Research and reports about DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone)
Juan Miguel’s Triumphant Story NADF Helping Those in Need in Foreign Countries – Read Juan’s Story
U.S. Food and Drug
Administration Presentation (PDF)
U.S. Food and Drug Administration presentation on:

  • FDA Organization and History and its Regulatory Authority
  • FDA Regulation of Cell Therapies for Autoimmune Diseases
  • Product testing & characterization challenges
  • Product (Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls) Regulation of Cellular Therapies
  • Preclinical Considerations in the Development of Cellular Therapies including preclinical study goals
  • Clinical Development of Cell Therapies for Autoimmune Diseases
  • Breakthrough Therapy Designation
  • Accelerated Approval
  • Orphan Drug Designation


Clinical Trials referencing “Adrenal” National Institutes of Health website Information on the various studies being conducted on some aspect of adrenal disease
Rare Genetic Steroid Disorders Consortium The Contact Registry is a secure, computerized database held by the data coordinating center that is a member of this consortium grant. By registering on the Contact Registry, registrants  are simply notifying this computerized, private registry of their interest in being contacted about potential research opportunities that are being conducted by the Rare Genetic Steroid Disorders Consortium.
Autoimmune Addison Disease  NIH Genetic Home Reference page with information about Autoimmune Addison’s disease.
The Role Of The Adrenal Gland In Sepsis And Inflammation (PDF) From the Conference on the Adrenal Cortex 2014 Chicago, Dr. Stefan R. Bornstein’s presentation is available here.
Hydrocortisone Infusion Therapy – clinical trial (PDF) Continuous Subcutaneous Hydrocortisone Infusion Therapy in Addison’s Disease: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial